Debian+Nginx+PHP(FastCGI)+MySQL搭建LNMP服务器(三版)

2010年10月12日 Linux服务器 评论 11 条 阅读 17,328 views 次

写在最前:看了张宴的“搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服务器”系列文章全是基于redhat/centos上的,现在又有很多人用Debian来做服务器,所以,今天本人来教大家在Debian5.06上也来实现LNMP。
本文基于张宴Nginx0.8.x + PHP 5.2.13(FastCGI)搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服务器(第6版)[原文链接:http://blog.s135.com/nginx_php_v6/]但略有不同。里面包涵了错误排除方法,优化等。但略有不同。里面包涵了错误排除方法,优化等。
本文是Debian上的第三版,是基于虚拟机上实现的。
关于如何在虚拟机上安装Debian可以参考基于LNMP虚拟机系统Debain的安装(图)[原文链接:http://www.opsers.org/2010_05_1056.html]
第一版[原文链接:http://www.opsers.org/2010_03_855.html]里面包涵了一些排错和我们常遇到的问题。
第二版[原文链接:http://www.opsers.org/2010_05_1062.html] 简单的写下了实验步骤。
第三版我将再增结合第一版和第二版增加些内容,以方便大家一次性完成LNMP的环境搭建。
一、前期问题
1、系统环境
netstat
uname
version
issue
2、给虚拟机中的Debian系统安装VIM 和SSH
如果你的机子出现下面的提示
 error 就说明你要挂载你的CD/DVD了,又或者是自己改一下源地址,关于如何设置自己的系统找到最快的源,请参考http://www.opsers.org/2010_03_851.html。我们用光盘,来的快。虚拟机一定要注意,先把虚拟光驱给连上哦,不然会出现找不到媒体的错误提示哦!
mount
然后我们就用apt-get install ssh vim来安装这两个软件吧。
3、检查系统中是否已经安装了我们正准备安装的软件
dpkg -l
我们主要检查一下apache mysql php mcrypt imagick这些软件是不是已经安装在我们的系统中了,如果有的话,就删除,记得,一定要连同配置文件一起删除。
apt-get remove xxx这是删除软件
dpkg –force-all –P xxx这是删除配置文件
如果说,你的系统是自己安装的虚拟机,只安装了基本系统,没有安装其它软件的话,基本上不会安装上述软件。但为了安全,还是自己先检测一下吧。
二、安装源码编译环境
我们可以通过SSH的远程工具来连接到我们的Debian系统上,进行下面的操作。
apt-get install build-essential
注意,在下面的文章中我们还需要安装libncurses5-dev libxml2-dev libssl-dev  ibcurl4-openssl-dev libjpeg62-dev libpng12-dev libfreetype6-dev libsasl2-dev autoconf libpcre3-dev这几个软件库,至于为什么要安装,大家会在后面的文章中找到答案。
所以,可以一起安装,也可以根据需要,缺什么安装什么。
apt-get install build-essential libncurses5-dev libxml2-dev libssl-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev libjpeg62-dev libpng12-dev libfreetype6-dev libsasl2-dev autoconf libpcre3-dev libperl-dev

三、下载所需软件
mkdir /soft
cd /soft
vim down.sh

内容如下
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/nginx/nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/php/php-5.2.14.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/phpfpm/php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mysql/mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/memcache/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/pcre/pcre-8.10.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/eaccelerator/eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/pdo/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/imagick-2.3.0.tgz

设置可执行权限
chmod +x down.sh
开始下载
./down.sh

四、安装软件
1、编译安装PHP 5.2.14所需的支持库:

tar zxvf libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.13.1/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local
make && make install
cd ..

tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure --enable-ltdl-install
make && make install
cd ..
./configure
make && make install
cd ..

tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
./configure
make && make install
cd ..

ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1
ln -s /usr/local/bin/libmcrypt-config /usr/bin/libmcrypt-config

tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
./configure
make && make install
cd ..

2、编译安装MySQL 5.5.3-m3
mysql安装前需要安装 libncurses5-dev
apt-get install libncurses5-dev
否则就会出现下面的错误
checking for termcap functions library... configure: error: No curses/termcap library found
处理完上面的内容,下面就可以开始编译mysql了
/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
tar zxvf mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.5.3-m3/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ --enable-assembler --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --with-big-tables --with-readline --with-ssl --with-embedded-server --enable-local-infile --with-plugins=partition,innobase,myisammrg
make && make install
chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql
cd ..

①、创建MySQL数据库存放目录
mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/data/
mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/
mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/
chown -R mysql:mysql /data0/mysql/

②、以mysql用户帐号的身份建立数据表:
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --datadir=/data0/mysql/3306/data --user=mysql
一定要注意看提示,是否正常 
mysql③、创建my.cnf配置文件:
vim /data0/mysql/3306/my.cnf
内容如下:
[client]
character-set-server = utf8
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
character-set-server = utf8
replicate-ignore-db = mysql
replicate-ignore-db = test
replicate-ignore-db = information_schema
user    = mysql
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql
datadir = /data0/mysql/3306/data
log-error = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql_error.log
pid-file = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql.pid
open_files_limit    = 10240
back_log = 600
max_connections = 5000
max_connect_errors = 6000
table_cache = 614
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 1M
join_buffer_size = 1M
thread_cache_size = 300
#thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 512M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default-storage-engine = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 246M
max_heap_table_size = 246M
long_query_time = 3
log-slave-updates
log-bin = /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 4M
binlog_format = MIXED
max_binlog_cache_size = 8M
max_binlog_size = 1G
relay-log-index = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
relay-log-info-file = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
relay-log = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
expire_logs_days = 30
key_buffer_size = 256M
read_buffer_size = 1M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 16M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover

interactive_timeout = 120
wait_timeout = 120

skip-name-resolve
#master-connect-retry = 10
slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396

#master-host     =   192.168.1.2
#master-user     =   username
#master-password =   password
#master-port     =  3306

server-id = 1

innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 512M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:256M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 4
innodb_thread_concurrency = 8
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
innodb_file_per_table = 0

#log-slow-queries = /data0/mysql/3306/slow.log
#long_query_time = 10

[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 32M

④、创建管理MySQL数据库的shell脚本:
vim /data0/mysql/3306/mysql
内容如下
#!/bin/sh

mysql_port=3306
mysql_username="admin"
mysql_password="12345678"

function_start_mysql()
{
    printf "Starting MySQL...\n"
    /bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &
}

function_stop_mysql()
{
    printf "Stoping MySQL...\n"
    /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /tmp/mysql.sock shutdown
}

function_restart_mysql()
{
    printf "Restarting MySQL...\n"
    function_stop_mysql
    sleep 5
    function_start_mysql
}

function_kill_mysql()
{
    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
}

if [ "$1" = "start" ]; then
    function_start_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "stop" ]; then
    function_stop_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "restart" ]; then
function_restart_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "kill" ]; then
function_kill_mysql
else
    printf "Usage: /data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/mysql {start|stop|restart|kill}\n"
fi

⑤、赋予shell脚本可执行权限:
chmod +x /data0/mysql/3306/mysql ⑥、启动MySQL:
/data0/mysql/3306/mysql start
稍等片刻,用netstat –ntlp |grep 3306就能看到mysqld服务启动了
mysql start
⑦、设置MySql root用户的密码(记住,后面用到)
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root password '123456789'
⑧、通过命令行登录管理MySQL服务器(提示输入密码时,输入刚才设置的密码123456789)
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql -u root -p -S /tmp/mysql.sock
这时候到mysql命令行中
start mysql⑨、输入以下SQL语句,创建一个具有root权限的用户(admin)和密码(12345678)
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '12345678';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'admin'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY '12345678';
quit;

⑩、停止MySQL
/data0/mysql/3306/mysql stop

3、编译安装PHP(FastCGI模式)
在编译安装前,我们要先来了解点小知识
如apt-cache search "freetype"
这个命令是在源中查找和freetype有关的所有软件,再根据软件包的描述,找你自己需要的软件,然后就可以用下面的命令进行安装
apt-get install libfreetype6-dev
当然是要根据错误提示来查找相关的软件。
我们在编译过程中,缺什么,就补什么,这个也算是一种解决问题的思路。希望能给大家带来点帮助!

出现下面的错误提示
checking for xml2-config... no
checking for xml-config... no
configure: error: XML configuration could not be found
安装
apt-get install libxml2-dev

出现
configure: error: Cannot find OpenSSL's <evp.h>
安装
apt-get install libssl-dev

出现
configure: error: Please reinstall the libcurl distribution -
    easy.h should be in <curl-dir>/include/curl/
安装
apt-get install libcurl4-openssl-dev

出现
configure: error: libjpeg.(a|so) not found.
安装
apt-get install libjpeg62-dev

出现
configure: error: libpng.(a|so) not found.
安装
apt-get install libpng12-dev

出现
configure: error: freetype.h not found.
安装
apt-get install libfreetype6-dev

出现
configure: error: sasl.h not found!
安装
apt-get install libsasl2-dev

所以,我们进行前,要把上面的软件全部安装上,根据Debain的版本不同,安装的包可能不同,但是思路就是这样的,我们的系统需要安装下面的软件
apt-get install libxml2-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev libjpeg62-dev libpng12-dev libfreetype6-dev libsasl2-dev

tar zxvf php-5.2.14.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.14 -p1
cd php-5.2.14/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php --with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc --with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config --with-iconv-dir=/usr/local --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir --with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml --disable-rpath --enable-discard-path --enable-safe-mode --enable-bcmath --enable-shmop --enable-sysvsem --enable-inline-optimization --with-curl --with-curlwrappers --enable-mbregex --enable-fastcgi --enable-fpm --enable-force-cgi-redirect --enable-mbstring --with-mcrypt --with-gd --enable-gd-native-ttf --with-openssl --with-mhash --enable-pcntl --enable-sockets --with-ldap --with-ldap-sasl --with-xmlrpc --enable-zip --enable-soap
make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS='-liconv'
make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
cd ..

4、编译安装PHP5扩展模块
这个在configure的时候会提示
-bash: ./configure: No such file or directory
所以我们要先安装autoconf
apt-get install autoconf
tar zxvf memcache-2.2.5.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.5/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make && make install
cd ..

tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.6.1/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --enable-eaccelerator=shared --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make && make install
cd ..

tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config --with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql
make && make install
cd ..

tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/
./configure
make && make install
cd ..

tar zxvf imagick-2.3.0.tgz
cd imagick-2.3.0/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make && make install
cd ..

5、修改php.ini文件
手工修改:查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = "./"
修改为extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"
并在此行后增加以下几行,然后保存:
extension = "memcache.so"
extension = "pdo_mysql.so"
extension = "imagick.so"

再查找output_buffering = Off
修改为output_buffering = On

再查找cgi.fix_pathinfo=0
把前面的注释去掉,防止Nginx文件类型错误解析漏洞。

自动修改:若嫌手工修改麻烦,可执行以下shell命令,自动完成对php.ini文件的修改:
sed -i 's#extension_dir = "./"#extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"\nextension = "memcache.so"\nextension = "pdo_mysql.so"\nextension = "imagick.so"\n#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i 's#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i "s#; always_populate_raw_post_data = On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g" /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i "s#; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0#cgi.fix_pathinfo=0#g" /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

6、配置eAccelerator加速PHP:
mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache
vim /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:
[eaccelerator]
zend_extension="/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so"
eaccelerator.shm_size="64"
eaccelerator.cache_dir="/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache"
eaccelerator.enable="1"
eaccelerator.optimizer="1"
eaccelerator.check_mtime="1"
eaccelerator.debug="0"
eaccelerator.filter=""
eaccelerator.shm_max="0"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_only="0"
eaccelerator.compress="1"
eaccelerator.compress_level="9"

7、创建www用户和组,以及供debian.freeopens.com虚拟主机使用的目录
/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www

8、创建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是为PHP打的一个FastCGI管理补丁,可以平滑变更php.ini配置而无需重启php-cgi):
在/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/目录中创建php-fpm.conf文件:
rm -f /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vim /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

输入以下内容(如果您安装 Nginx + PHP 用于程序调试,请将以下的<value name="display_errors">0</value>改为<value name="display_errors">1</value>,以便显示PHP错误信息,否则,Nginx 会报状态为500的空白错误页):
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<configuration>

  All relative paths in this config are relative to php's install prefix

  <section name="global_options">

    Pid file
    <value name="pid_file">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>

    Error log file
    <value name="error_log">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>

    Log level
    <value name="log_level">notice</value>

    When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS ...
    <value name="emergency_restart_threshold">10</value>

    ... in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.
    Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator's shared memory.
    <value name="emergency_restart_interval">1m</value>

    Time limit on waiting child's reaction on signals from master
    <value name="process_control_timeout">5s</value>

    Set to 'no' to debug fpm
    <value name="daemonize">yes</value>

  </section>

  <workers>

    <section name="pool">

      Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
      <value name="name">default</value>

      Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
      Valid syntax is 'ip.ad.re.ss:port' or just 'port' or '/path/to/unix/socket'
      <value name="listen_address">127.0.0.1:9000</value>

      <value name="listen_options">

        Set listen(2) backlog
        <value name="backlog">-1</value>

        Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
        In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.
        Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
        <value name="owner"></value>
        <value name="group"></value>
        <value name="mode">0666</value>
      </value>

      Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.
      <value name="php_defines">
        <value name="sendmail_path">/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>
        <value name="display_errors">0</value>
      </value>

      Unix user of processes
      <value name="user">www</value>

      Unix group of processes
      <value name="group">www</value>

      Process manager settings
      <value name="pm">

        Sets style of controling worker process count.
        Valid values are 'static' and 'apache-like'
        <value name="style">static</value>

        Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
        Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
        Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
        Used with any pm_style.
        <value name="max_children">128</value>

        Settings group for 'apache-like' pm style
        <value name="apache_like">

          Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="StartServers">20</value>

          Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="MinSpareServers">5</value>

          Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="MaxSpareServers">35</value>

        </value>

      </value>

      The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated
      Should be used when 'max_execution_time' ini option does not stop script execution for some reason
      '0s' means 'off'
      <value name="request_terminate_timeout">0s</value>

      The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file
      '0s' means 'off'
      <value name="request_slowlog_timeout">0s</value>

      The log file for slow requests
      <value name="slowlog">logs/slow.log</value>

      Set open file desc rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_files">65535</value>

      Set max core size rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_core">0</value>

      Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chroot"></value>

      Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chdir"></value>

      Redirect workers' stdout and stderr into main error log.
      If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
      <value name="catch_workers_output">yes</value>

      How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
      Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
      For endless request processing please specify 0
      Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
      <value name="max_requests">1024</value>

      Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
      Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
      Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
      <value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>

      Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
      All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment
      <value name="environment">
        <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>
        <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
        <value name="TMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TMPDIR">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TEMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>
        <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>
        <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>
      </value>

    </section>

  </workers>

</configuration>

9、启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的9000端口,进程数为128(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启64个进程),用户为www:
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start

注:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm还有其他参数,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重启php-cgi,重新加载配置文件使用reload。
启动的时候出现下面的错误(是内在不足导致的,在文章的结尾优化后,就不会有这样的问题了)
Starting php_fpm eAccelerator: Could not allocate 67108864 bytes, the maximum size the kernel allows is 33554432 bytes. Lower the amount of memory request or increase the limit in /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax.
PHP Warning:  [eAccelerator] Can not create shared memory area in Unknown on line 0
PHP Fatal error:  Unable to start eAccelerator module in Unknown on line 0
failed
10、安装Nginx
①、安装Nginx所需的pcre库:
tar zxvf pcre-8.10.tar.gz
cd pcre-8.10/
./configure
make && make install
cd ..

②、安装Nginx
tar zxvf nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.8.46/
./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module
make && make install
cd ..

③、创建Nginx日志目录
mkdir -p /data1/logs
chmod +w /data1/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs

④、创建Nginx配置文件
I、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建nginx.conf文件:
rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vim /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

内容如下:
user  www www;

worker_processes 8;

error_log  /data1/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;

pid        /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;

events
{
  use epoll;
  worker_connections 65535;
}

http
{
  include       mime.types;
  default_type  application/octet-stream;

  #charset  gb2312;
  server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
  client_header_buffer_size 32k;
  large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
  client_max_body_size 8m;
  sendfile on;
  tcp_nopush     on;

  keepalive_timeout 60;

  tcp_nodelay on;

  fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
  fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
  fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
  fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;

  gzip on;
  gzip_min_length  1k;
  gzip_buffers     4 16k;
  gzip_http_version 1.0;
  gzip_comp_level 2;
  gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
  gzip_vary on;

  #limit_zone  crawler  $binary_remote_addr  10m;

  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  www.freeopens.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data0/htdocs/www;

    #limit_conn   crawler  20;   
    location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
    {     
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }
    location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
    {
      expires      30d;
    }

    location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
    {
      expires      1h;
    }   

    log_format  access  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
              '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
              '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
    access_log  /data1/logs/access.log  access;
      }

}

II、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建fcgi.conf文件:
vim /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf
内容如下
fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;

fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;

fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;

⑤、启动Nginx
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx

会出现如下的错误提示
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx: error while loading shared libraries: libpcre.so.0: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
我们需要安装
apt-get install libpcre3-dev
五、配置开机自动启动Nginx + PHP + Mysql
vim /etc/rc.local
把下面的内容增加到exit 0的上面,这个地方一定要注意,是在exit 0的上面,放到下面的话,就不会启动了!!
/data0/mysql/3306/mysql start
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx

六、相关软件的重新启动
如果说你改了nginx的配置文件,就要用下面的命令,使配置生效
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t   检查参数
对于Nginx 0.8.x版本,现在平滑重启Nginx配置非常简单,执行以下命令即可
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload    平滑重启
对于Nginx 0.8.x之前的版本,执行下面的命令
kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`   平滑重启
如果说你改了php.ini就要用下面的命令,使配置生效
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm reload 重新加载 mysql数据库重新启动
/data0/mysql/3306/mysql restart
七、优化Linux内核参数
vim /etc/sysctl.conf
在末尾增加以下内容
# Add
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536
net.core.netdev_max_backlog =  32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768

net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216

net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2

net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1

net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800

#net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
#net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024  65535

使配置立即生效:
/sbin/sysctl -p
八、在小内存服务器(256M)上的配置优化
1、Nginx  的主配置文件(nginx.conf)优化
vim /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
根据下面的内容进行相应的修改和增加
#Nginx每个进程耗费10M~12M内存,这里只开启一个Nginx进程,节省内存。
worker_processes 1;
#对网页文件、CSS、JS、XML等启动gzip压缩,减少数据传输量,提高访问速度。
gzip on;
gzip_min_length  1k;
gzip_buffers     4 16k;
gzip_http_version 1.0;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
gzip_vary on;
location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
   {
     #将Nginx与FastCGI的通信方式由TCP改为Unix Socket。TCP在高并发访问下比Unix Socket稳定,但Unix Socket速度要比TCP快。
     fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
     #fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
     fastcgi_index index.php;
     include fcgi.conf;
   }
#博客的图片较多,更改较少,将它们在浏览器本地缓存15天,可以提高下次打开我博客的页面加载速度。
   location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
   {
     expires      15d;
   }
   #博客会加载很多JavaScript、CSS,将它们在浏览器本地缓存1天,访问者在看完一篇文章或一页后,再看另一篇文件或另一页的内容,无需从服务器再次下载相同的JavaScript、CSS,提高了页面显示速度。
   location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
   {
     expires      1d;
   }

2、PHP(FastCGI)的配置优化
php.ini 配置文件中关于eAcelerator的优化。只使用1M共享内存,删除所有在最后3600秒内无法存取的脚本缓存,用磁盘辅助进行缓存。
vim /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
根据内容增加或者修改
eaccelerator.shm_size="1"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600"
eaccelerator.keys = "disk_only"
eaccelerator.sessions = "disk_only"
eaccelerator.content = "disk_only"

3、php-fpm.conf 的配置优化
vim /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
一是修改以下一行,将启动的php-cgi进程数由原来的128个改为5个:
<value name="max_children">5</value>
二是修改以下一行,将TCP模式改为Unix Socket模式:
<value name="listen_address">/tmp/php-cgi.sock</value>
4、MySQL配置优化 vi /data0/mysql/3306/my.cnf
根据自己的情况改吧
[client]
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
[mysql]
prompt="(\u:s135:)[\d]> "
no-auto-rehash
[mysqld]
user    = mysql
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql
datadir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql/data
open_files_limit    = 600
back_log = 20
max_connections = 100
max_connect_errors = 200
table_cache = 60
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 16M
sort_buffer_size = 128K
join_buffer_size = 128K
thread_cache_size = 10
thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 0M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default_table_type = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-UNCOMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 512K
max_heap_table_size = 32M
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/data/slow.log
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/data/error.log
long_query_time = 1
log_long_format
server-id = 1
#log-bin = /usr/local/mysql/data/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 2M
max_binlog_cache_size = 4M
max_binlog_size = 512M
expire_logs_days = 7
key_buffer_size = 4M
read_buffer_size = 1M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 2M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 4M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover
[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 16M

九、每天定时切割Nginx日志
1、创建脚本/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
输入以下内容
#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00
# The Nginx logs path
logs_path="/usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/"
mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")
mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/access_$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y%m%d").log
kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`

2、设置crontab,每天凌晨00:00切割nginx访问日志
crontab -e
增加以下内容
00 00 * * * /bin/bash  /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

如果本文有什么不对不妥之处,请大家指出,我好及时改正!

11 条留言  访客:6 条  博主:5 条

  1. 先顶一个 呵呵

    问一下羽飞老师啊 现在到底是学apahce好还是nginx好啊

    对nginx还是一窍不通 没怎么玩过

  2. 在网上都找不到ubuntu安装lnmp详细步骤的解决方案,不知道是源问题还是什么 必须包 apt-get install gcc g++ 都装不了 挫败啊

  3. 呵呵~好文章,参考本文成功在Debian下搭建好了LNMP

  4. avatar debian 初学

    mysql 照着上面的步骤怎么也装不好。能帮我解答下吗?
    120427 21:42:25 [ERROR] /usr/local/webserver/mysql/libexec/mysqld: unknown option ‘-d’
    120427 21:42:25 [ERROR] Aborting
    不明白上面意思

    • unknown option ‘-d’提示参数不对!!

      • avatar debian 初学

        我安装mysql的配置全是看着你的博客上写的呀。到了第二步 以mysql用户帐号的身份建立数据表 执行下面的语句时 ,就报了上面的错误。 是 ./configure 这一步错了吗?

        • 每一步都要看提示的啊!特别是错误的提示,如果有错误的话,建议看第一版,因为里面有很多的排错的方法!

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